What you need to know about the filmmaking process Afshin Marivani, the best and most famous Iranian poet and filmmaker, who has won the title of the best short filmmaker.

Description of the filmmaking process:
When an idea is etched in the filmmaker’s mind until the audience sees it on the screen, various steps are taken and different personnel complete their activities.

In general, the filmmaking process is divided into three stages: pre-production, production and the complementary stage of filmmaking. By mentioning the activities that are done in each stage, you will get acquainted with the terms, technical and static aspects of cinema:

1_Pre production in the filmmaking process (Pre production):
This stage begins when a word sparks in the filmmaker’s mind and makes him interested in making a film about the word.

This word is called a theme. For example, “addiction”, “migration”, “divorce” or any other concept can be given to the filmmaker as a theme.

The theme (one word) becomes a sentence, and in fact this sentence is the personal and doctrinal opinion of the filmmaker in relation to a single subject. The development of a theme in a sentence is called an idea. For example, the theme of “immigration” can turn into such an idea (immigration is a social problem.)

The filmmaker is successful in being able to prove his idea at the end of the film and align the audience with himself.

After expressing the idea, the idea should be turned into a plan: a plan means a summary of the story and the story with the main characters of the story that should be written in a maximum of 10 pages.

The plan will become a script after approval. In writing the script, all the scenes should be mentioned by mentioning the stage number, time of the event (day and night) and place of the event (internal and external), respectively, and also after stating the time and place, the action (performance or scene) along with the actors’ speech ( Dialoge) must be written.

It is the responsibility of the screenwriter or screenwriter to complete all these steps until the end of writing the script or screenplay.

After finishing the scriptwriting work, we enter the stages where the director starts his work. The director plans the scenes of a scenario into smaller divisions. That is, it breaks a scene into many different plots, and also, by combining the scenes, performs the act of “sequencing”, that is, it determines the range of film sequences. Therefore, after writing the script (which only has scenography), the director takes the task of planning and sequencing the scenes of a scenario and writes a text that is completely technical and artistic.

The order of writing this text, which is called a script, is completely based on the process of the story, and plan by plan will be a film that is to be assembled and shown on the cinema screen.

In writing the script, the director will provide a complete technical and artistic description of each plan for the production stage, including Scale, Timing, Angle, Camera angle, Camera distance and proximity to the subject. , The type of applied lens, the type of filter, how the lighting in the scene, the setting, the camera movements, the movement in the editing and the type of connection between the plans, the movements of the actors and their precise dialogues.

In addition to the script, the director also sets up his own shot list. Shot list means descriptions of facades based on facade angle, facade height, facade size and facade timing. Based on the shot list, it designs its own story board. In the design of the Story board, the director designs a simple and expressive plan of each plan on paper so that the description of the shot list, including the general plan of Mizensen, is expressive in simple plans.

After this step, the director must decoupage the script.

Decoupage means disrupting the order and sequence of the script so that the plans are filmed in less time, with better quality and with less energy and manpower.

Because filming a script step by step in its own order is neither cost-effective nor rational. Instead, you need to specify the filming locations based on how the scenes work, and then start working in one location, recording all the movie plans that take place there (whether at the beginning of the script or at the end), and then Moved to another location. Even in decoupage writing in one place, the location of the camera at different angles is considered, which is called “set-up” and decoupage is done based on the “set-ups” of the camera so that first all the shots from one The specified angle (Set up) is filmed and then the camera is moved to the next set-up. In the decoupage, like the script, all the technical and artistic descriptions of the work will be mentioned.

That being said, there are two heavy tasks for the director, and only in the pre-production stage, but in the later stages, there are also tasks that we will describe in the appropriate place.

When a film gets a “production license”, it will definitely have a producer: the producer, the body or the people who finance the film from the beginning to the end in all stages of production. It is better for this organ to be a cinema foundation (like Farabi, Ministry of Guidance, Television) because in addition to the financial budget of the film, it can have facilities such as camera, sound recorder, light kit, montage set, negative, positive, sound bar and… To the filmmaker.

Another person who must be identified from the beginning and move forward with the project step by step is the “production manager” who has the heavy responsibility of financial and executive planning of the work. Contracts and wages are also set under the supervision of the production manager.

When the contracts are signed by the parties, the script and decoupage are printed and duplicated by the number of personnel and made available to them.

Also in the pre-production stage,

The director, production manager, producer, and sometimes the cinematographer review the location to determine and select filming locations (location means the locations where filming takes place). The location can be indoor or outdoor, and the difference with the studio is that it is specially built and installed for filming, but the locations can be public and optional, such as home, alley and street.

2_Production stage in the production process:
The production stage is the filming stage, and the beginning is when the so-called work is keyed (ie the first day of filming) and the end is the end of the filming stage.

The production stage is the longest and most personnel stage of filmmaking.

These personnel are classified into the following groups:

(Directing group, Picture group, Scene design group, Costume design group, Face design group, Trocage group, Sound group, Game group)

Definition of directing in the filmmaking process:
At the head of this group is the director, who is in charge of the artistic management of the whole work, and any activity on the part of the rest of the staff must continue with his consent and opinion, with the aim of doing the director’s proposed and designed mezzanine well.

The mezzanine is actually a kind of director’s signature, and the type of movement of the actors with the camera in the depths of the stage, and finally the director has to approve the mezzanine.

The “first and second assistants of the director” are a kind of bridge between him and the rest of the staff, and in all stages of the work, he is the executor of the director’s command, and they execute the director’s script and decoupage face to face.

Another person who has a heavy role in the directing team is the “stage secretary”. The stage secretary has three main responsibilities:

1_Write the name of the project, sequence number, scene number, plan number and withdrawal number on the clamp (crack) and then the task of kicking in front of the camera. The clock and the specifications mentioned on it later in the editing stage as the plan identification help the editor to find the desired plan and impression among the many and cluttered scenes and sequences, 8 and also can be the starting point of synchronization (sinc ) Find audio and video on the assembly table.

2_Fill the report sheet (Report Sheet) accurately, as well as calculate the time of withdrawal of plans by the stopwatch and its inclusion in these sheets. These tabs will help the editor in the editing phase to more easily sort out the cluttered decoupage based on the script, as well as help him choose the best impression and set aside the oti impressions.

3- Maintaining the general record of the scenes (Record) in order to maintain the sequence and visual order and to prevent jumping and mental tension in the viewer. Record means the correlation and sequence of plans of a scene from various aspects, which are:

A: Costume and makeup record of the actor:
Plans that are cut sequentially in a scene should be consistent in terms of clothing, jewelry (such as watches and rings), as well as the type and intensity of makeup (especially in close-ups).

B: Accessory record:
Accessory means decor items and stage objects that should be sequenced in such plans in terms of type of placement, angle and distance from each other, and also an object or element should not be added to or subtracted from the stage for no reason.

C: Light record:
The type of lighting in the scenes of a scene should be such that there are no contrasting plans in terms of light in the scene. It is necessary to pay attention to the number of lights, their type (halogen or tungsten), the intensity and color of light, as well as the angle of height of radiation, which is the same in all shots of a scene, to maintain the visual sequence in the scene and create or produce light jump (Jump Light) is prevented.

D: Motion record:
Two or more shots of a scene that together represent a single movement; Must be in terms of type of movement, form of movement, speed of movement and acceleration of movement of the actor in the scene, which together represent a single movement; They must have a record and sequence in terms of type of movement, form of movement, speed of movement and acceleration of movement of the actor in the scene, as well as the whole mezzanine of the scene, so that a smooth and healthy assembly can be performed between these plans.

In the place (cut) between the two plans, it should be noted that the end of the first plan is the same as the beginning of the second plan in terms of movement rhythm and the movement has neither repetition nor deficiency. Both the repetition of the movement and the removal of a part of the movement will create a jump in the viewer’s mind, which will have an adverse effect on the order, sequence and record of the scene.

E: Time and place record:
The time and place of the story should not contradict what is seen in the scene. This means that each visual element inside the frame must indicate the time and place of the events in terms of antiquity. For example, the presence of the “Allah” logo of the Islamic Republic on the train on the stage, when the story is related to the time of Reza Shah (Pahlavi dynasty), disrupts the sequence and record of the time and place of the scene.

Failure to keep a record in the viewer’s mind creates confusion. This mental turmoil has a very undesirable and lasting effect on the mind of the audience in such a way that the audience ignores the content, although valuable, of the work and will negatively criticize the whole work. Therefore, one of the most important stages of directing is maintaining the overall record of the stage mezzanine, which will be completed in the editing stage.

Image group in the filmmaking process:
The image group means the same filming group and the lighting group that it is better to include these two groups in one set so that we do not get into conflicts on the stage. The contrast that may arise between the lighting design of the lighting and the type of exposure of the cameraman ends with the merging of the two responsibilities into one group.

At the head of this group is the “Director of Photography” and Lighting (Director of photography)

Designs side plans on paper according to the number of lights in the scene, the type of lights (halogen and tungsten), the color of the light, the angle of the light and the height of the light. Also, the type of camera movements, the type of lens, the amount of aperture opening and closing in relation to the correct exposure and the desired depth of field will be designed in a complete design on paper. Then the general plan of filming and lighting will be given to the cameraman (Cameraman) and at the head of the filming scene, the director of photography will be in charge of managing and supervising the work of the cameraman, but the cameraman will be the direct executor of this plan.

Another person who works directly with the cameraman is the first assistant cameraman (Focus man) who is responsible for the sharpness of the image at all moments of the recording. The resolution of the image is the final sharpness that is obtained by adjusting the focus range correctly, which is called the Net image, ie the image that is clear and not blurred, or the image that is on the objective focus range from the correct distance. it is set.

This is a very simple task in photography because the photo is a single fixed form with a certain focus and distance, but in filming the problem starts because the images are moving and the camcorder actually shoots 24 frames per second, also Depending on the director’s mise-en-scène, a shot may involve both complex camera movements and the actor’s in-depth movements. Therefore, focusing the images on all the complex moments of a shot will not be an easy task, especially since the first assistant cameraman will not see anything in the viewfinder because the cameraman (camera man) is behind the viewfinder.

The second and third assistants of the cameraman are responsible for performing physical movements and placing the camera in its position, such as performing Tracking and Traveling (which we will explain more in the future). The technical staff in the film crew is responsible for providing power to the camera, sound recorder and light projectors. In fact, these are the technical staff members who will be directly involved with the electricity and power supply needed for the high-end filming scene.

Another person who does his work independently but falls under the category of filmmaker is a “scene photographer”. The stage photographer captures both behind-the-scenes and scenes from a film. In addition to the souvenir aspect, these photos are archived as part of the film ID in the cinematic file of a project. Also, most of this photography is done for advertising purposes, which itself includes a wide range of advertisements, which include: magazine advertising photos (photojournalism) for publication in newspapers and film magazines or on the cover design. Magazines are used. (This series of photos is taken with a 135 camera), advertising photos of glass boards inside the cinema (this series is also taken with 135 cameras), photos taken to make movie posters, billboards or for the cinema entrance. Used (this series is photographed with 120 cameras).

“Lighting”, which is one of the responsibilities of this group (image group), is a huge process that requires a long discussion, but in a word, briefly here the division of types of light in terms of position, quality and performance, case We check. The lighting design of the plans is based on three types of light:

1_Key Light: This light is intense and dominant light that plays a major role in illuminating the subject by creating the main shadows.

2_Fill Light: This soft light reduces the contrast of darkness and light and reveals the details of the subject.

3_ Backlight: This intense spot light shines on the subject from behind to separate it from its background.

With the correct design of light, it is possible to create various desired states in terms of the space of “light and shadow” in the image, and sometimes even to “the psychology of character by lighting”.

Scene design group in the filmmaking process:
This group includes the stage designer and performers. The stage designer according to the concepts of point, line, surface, volume, form and various shapes, as well as according to the concepts of color, designs decors for different scenes of a film and pursues a goal from the design he draws, which is closed. Depending on the situation and atmosphere of the story, scene design can pursue different goals: for example, in historical films, especially at the beginning of the film and in open scenes (long shot), scene design introduces the time and place of the story. In this way, according to the forms of a period of time and a specific place, a design for the scene can be set that is indicative and represents the date of the story.

Designing the scene of a private place, such as a character’s apartment or bedroom, can sometimes represent different dimensions of his personality, because people choose the shapes and colors around them based on their mood, culture, job and even emotional background, and in the decor of life. They show that it is a reflection of their spirits. For example, a character whose room consists of sharp lines and warm colors is different from a character whose room consists of soft lines and cool colors in terms of various personality dimensions, and scene design can be of great help in this regard to “typology” and “Characteristics” of the characters in a movie.

Also, sometimes, designing a scene with special forms and colors expresses the feeling of the scene or intensifies the visual effects of the scene mode on the spectator. For example, cold colors with curved shapes and lines make the space feel calm, but warm colors with Sharp forms and lines evoke a sense of aggression and violence in the audience.

Another task of stage design is dramatic expression

It is a scene (in the course of the story) that happened but was not seen. For example, if a character enters his apartment and encounters a chaotic situation, this scene design indicates a scene of theft or assassination that has not been shown in the scenes of the film, but with a correct design in the scene, it has added to the dramatic process of the story. Is.

Costume design in the filmmaking process:
The costume designer’s goals and performance are also very close to those of the stage designer. The costume designer designs a suitable cover for the characters by studying the history, indigenous and cultural geography of different nations and ethnicities at different times. In historical films, this design primarily aims to introduce the time and place where the character lives. Due to the culture of nations in different periods of history, we see different clothes and covers with cultural, ethnic, racial and historical background for men and women in the history of clothing, we see that the costume designer by studying the history of clothing can be especially in historical films and An oracle for its audience should be the time and place of the story. Another very important goal of costume design is to “type” in the film, and finally, the character of the story character.

Typography and character building, both in terms of physical characteristics (appearance of the character) and in terms of psychological characteristics (personality of the character) with the help of a successful clothing design, can enter the field of action in a considerable and effective way. For example, the differences between a ragged dress and a luxurious dress in two contrasting personalities from an economic and social point of view can be considered a successful typology, and when we enter the discussion of personality, the points are more subtle and sensitive than typography with physical and physical characteristics. It means that two different types of personalities and two different psychological dimensions can be injected into the same type, which are economically and socially in the same class category, so that the color and form of a cover can be from culture, birthplace, spirits, Talk about the age and even the occupation of the character.

Another goal that can be attributed to a costume design is the dramatic narration of a scene that is not seen in the film but exists in the narrative. For example, if you show a character dressed up, then in the soundtrack, a bell rings and the character leaves the stage, and in the next shot, he returns to the stage in a torn and bloody dress; This change in costume design describes the “assassination scene”, which was not shown in the film.

Face design in the filmmaking process (makeup):
It begins with the goal of resembling the face of an actor to the face of a character living in the director’s mind and notes.

The work of a face designer (makeup artist) includes three different dimensions, sometimes depending on the situation, one of these dimensions is more important. And sometimes all three dimensions are used together. The three dimensions of a face design are:

1_Balancing
2_Balancing
3_بومشناسی
Balancing means cultural, personality, age, job and spiritual simulation of the actor to the director’s imaginary character in such a way that with a suitable make-up, the character can be fully introduced in terms of the dimensions mentioned, to the extent that the type and appearance of the character Slow down the inner workings and spirits of his personality.

Sometimes a successful make-up in the field of balancing can even turn a positive face of an actor into a negative face or create a positive face from a negative face.

Every face has both negative lines and forms (organs that have an adverse effect on the mind and create distrust in the audience) and positive lines and forms (organs that have a positive effect on the mind and a sense of trust in the audience. And creates sympathy).

Balancing tries to turn a positive face into a sympathetic face (a positive face that creates sympathy and confidence in the audience) by highlighting the positive factors of the face and highlighting the negative factors of the face. In contrast, by making the positive factors appear less and the negative factors more vivid, the face becomes an anti-sympathetic face (a negative face that creates distrust in the audience). Therefore, it can be said that the purpose of balancing is not beautification in any way, but the emergence of personal and spiritual characteristics of the character (whether positive or negative) of the actor’s face.

Imbalance means creating a state or feature in the actor’s face or limbs that does not normally exist and is caused by makeup tricks on the face, such as: wounds, burns, tears, warts, pimples, bruises, leishmaniasis, blindness, leprosy, fractures and ….

Ecology means creating a kind of culture, ethnicity and nationality in the actor’s face, like the actor’s makeup with the aim of designing the face of a South, Turkmen, Azeri, African, Asian, European and….

However, face design also pursues the same three main goals of a set designer and a costume designer: for example, in historical films, one can study and model facial and hair cosmetics at a specific historical time and place in which the film takes place. , Evoked that time in the faces of the actors, in which case, the greatest task is on ecology and ethnography.

The second purpose is to introduce the various dimensions of the film’s characters, especially from a psychological point of view, as well as to show age and social and economic status, character occupation, culture and social customs, characters’ spirits and introspection. Becomes.

And sometimes a special kind of makeup tells of a scene that happened in the course of the story but was not seen (which helps save cinematic time in the film). In this case, a special type of makeup for the actor after showing a scene (such as scenes of conflict) can be summarized in the area of ​​imbalance, such as wounds, bruises and fractures in the process of imbalance that

Maggie tells of a scene that has not been shown.

It is certain that the correct choice of the actor will also help a lot in designing his face, so that the skeleton and skeleton of a face must have the latent and basic characteristics of a certain ethnicity or nationality in order to be able to make exactly the same native person with the help of makeup. Extracted from his face.

Even in the balancing stage, by choosing the right sympathetic and anti-sympathetic figures (positive and negative) for specific roles, one can get closer to the imaginary character with the help of makeup.

Trochage in the filmmaking process:
The trochage unit means “cinematic tricks” or “cinematic tricks” which are translations of the word (Special Effect) meaning “special effects” and (Visual Effect) meaning “visual effects”.

Truckage means any trick that is used to perform a scene; A trick that is not possible to actually perform, such as scenes of bombing, shooting, fire, falling from a height, shooting and death. Even a part of the make-up (imbalance) itself is a kind of trochage.

Many of the tricks can be performed on the set of the film, but many others that can not be performed in the production stage, will be done later in the complementary stages of filmmaking.

Recording in the filmmaking process:
The sound of the film is done in two ways: “simultaneous recording” and “sound recording”.

If a movie is played simultaneously with sound recording, the sound of the movie is recorded on the set and at the same time as the images are recorded. In this method, the actions related to sound recording will be performed in the production stage.

If the recording is not done at the same time, it has entered the sounding stage, which will be done in the complementary stages of making the film, and we will explain it in a suitable place, but now we are talking about a method whose sound is recorded on the filming stage at the same time as recording images. This is called the recording process.

The sound group consists of a main recorder that works with the sound recorder (Nagra). He wears headphones and is ready to record audio on the back. Depending on the size of the work, the size of the scene, the location, and the number of actors in the stage mezzanine, one or more boommasters may be present alongside the main sound engineer.

The sound received from each sound canvas enters the headphone and Nagra headphones, and as a result, all sound inputs (received sounds) pass through the sound channel.

The recorder evaluates all the incoming sounds to the device and determines their intensity and weakness according to the position of the scene, channels the sounds and finally mixes all of them and sends them to the Nagra device. In Nagra, the sounds are all on An audio tape (Rubinch tape) is recorded.

At the same time, with the director’s command and clapping, the camera and Nagra start their work at a very short distance from each other, and as a result, all the sounds will be recorded simultaneously with the images (Sinc) on the soundtrack, and later in the editing stage, Assembling such an audio tape on images will be very simple because on the image, the first clock frame in the image is synced with the first sound frame, and all images and sounds from the sync frame onwards will be synchronized in one shot, and then the same Method, the rest of the plans are synced to the end of the project. In such a case where simultaneous recording takes place on stage, all sounds of different types will be recorded on a single tape simultaneously.

Game group in the filmmaking process:
The game group consists of: Black Legions, exchangers, actors and actors.

The Black Legions are a flood of unprofessional actors chosen from ordinary people in the area. This vast flood of blackness of the divisions is used to create space in the mezzanine of the scenes that need a crowd, and in fact it can be said that they are the accessories of the scene!

Black Legions is more commonly used in historical films, which, while recording the plot, due to their unprofessional and large and uncontrollable nature, require simultaneous guidance from the director to form the correct movement and the correct mezzanine on the scene.

Transformers are professional personnel who are renowned for their work, such as diving champions, equestrian riders, skilled kite pilots, gliders and paragliders.

In plots that threaten the professional actor with risky actions, the actors enter the field instead of the actors, and to risk their lives, they sometimes receive higher salaries than the actor in the lead role!

Usually, the actors play in distant scenes, so there should be no need for the face of the actor to resemble the face of the main actor, but he should only be physically and physically equal to the main actor.

The actors are the only official and professional members in front of the camera who, given their role in the story, will have an active presence in the form of a character.

A successful professional actor must be able to recognize the psychological, social and cultural dimensions of the character and mold them all in harmony with each other.

The aspects of the actor’s work can be summarized in three main dimensions:

1_The tone and resonance of the sound
2_Physical body
3_Face mime
Whenever an actor strikes a balance between all three, he can be successful in his work, and this balance does not mean that the three are equally divided, but must, according to the circumstances in a particular plan, put one at the top and the rest at the top. Next priorities. For example, in open and long shots, the physical body is at the top of things, but in close up, facial mimicry is important, and if the shot has an important dialogue, the tone and resonance of the voice is the first priority.

Play in theater and cinema also have differences in establishing a balance between these three items and the precedence and lag of preference of these items with each other, for example in theater due to the distance of the audience.

The actor is always the size of the audience’s view, “Long Shot”. Therefore, facial mimicry will not be visible, understandable and transferable to the audience in the theater through the methods of sensory games, gaze play and so-called subcutaneous play in cinema, and if the actor is going to work with facial mimicry and facial organs, this should be The movements are exaggerated, exaggerated and aggravated. Instead, the tone and resonance of the voice and the verbal presentation in the theater will be more important than in the cinema to the extent that the verbal presentation of the theater actor can be the main help in advancing the play, while in the cinema dialogue is avoided as much as possible. When necessary, when the images are not clear, the word accelerates with the help of the image.

The physical body is also much more important and exaggerated in theater, but in cinema, the physical play of the body makes more sense in distant scenes. (Ie, scenes that move away from the actor so that the actor can maneuver with his full height in the frame to express his mood in the game through the physical body) and in close-ups, this connection will be meaningless and the physical function of the body Reaches zero and gives way to facial sensation and play.

But the guide and master of an actor is the director of a film, the actor of the film.

He is a “pre-costume” actor with a white beard who, after years of acting and earning points and success in this way, now has a style and an idea and is considered a kind of “author actor”.

The actor trains young and novice actors and nurtures their undiminished talents, guiding and leading them so that they can play their role in the best way.
Complete stages of film production (Post Production):
This stage begins when filming ends. The material obtained from the camcorder is exposed to the negative (negative version). On this negative in the laboratory, the process of emergence and printing is done and then the product, which is positive (positive version), is sent to the assembly unit to perform the next steps. The positive version on which the assembly work is done is called copy work or zero copy. This copy enters the editing stage and after the steps that will be mentioned, it becomes a playable version in the cinema. Thus, the additional stages of making the film continue until its release (public screening).

Editing:
Editing means collecting, arranging and linking the plans of a film based on a script and in order to achieve an independent unit (film) that is done by the editor or editor. This connection and the type of connection between the two plans is done in different ways: the first method is the direct cut method, which is done without time mediation, but the second type, which has different types, is a cut with time mediation and It is called indirect cut or optical cut (Opitcal Cut) which has the following different types:

1_Fade, which has two types of Fade out and Fade in. Feed – This means starting the plan gradually and slowly turning on the image. But feed-out means the gradual end of the plan and the slow shutdown of the image.


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